FVA 1 "Schwatze Düvel"
Type
 
Dimensions
Length 5,0 m, wingspan 9,0 m
Weights
 
Performance
 
Type
Werk.Nr
Registration
History
     
Built in 1920, took part in the first Rhön
FVA 1 "Schwarze Teufel"

The glider that draws Klemperer is based on theories developed by Professor Hugo Junkers and previously applied for the first all-metal aircraft. They are mainly based on the use of a cantilever monoplane wing using a very thick profile inside which are placed all the reinforcements necessary to stiffening of the wing to the exclusion of masts, shrouds and other commonly used tensioners at the time. Particular research is also conducted to reduce drag items do not contribute to the lift: their surfaces are minimized and fabric-covered to the highest profile overall.

The glider has a wingspan of 9.5 m, 5.5 m long and weighs 62 kg empty for a wing de 15m2 surface. The structure, built in wood, is made ​​of two removable parts:
- one includes the wing, cockpit, nose fuselage and landing gear;
- the other brings the rear fuselage and empennage. The assembly of the two elements is located at the fuselage frame at the trailing edge of the wing.

The wing has a trapezoidal shape in plan and section a flat lower surface profile of 22% relative thickness, the study was conducted at the Prandl blower Göttingen. It is built around three spars with soles T are joined by a truss rods. Also built in the lattice webs are threaded and glued to the longitudinal beams, the torsional rigidity is ensured by strips of fabric glued diagonally. The leading edge is coated cardboard while the trailing edge is formed of a piano wire together the rib bottoms. The excellent resistance to bending and torsion is obtained by multiplying the braces, brackets and small section of reinforcements; the complexity of realization resulting consideration is the weight gain compared to a conventional building of the same structural strength. Thus, the main spar, tested the coefficient 5, weighs only 7.5 kg; all the ribs: 3,7 kg each wing: 870 g; wing completed weighs 24 kg Surface 15m2.
The cockpit is shaped by a light structure interfaced and the pilot's seat is attached to the main beam. The controls are arranged in a conventional manner and attack the rudders by steel cables. The landing gear has two carefully contoured legs carrying at their ends Ash skates. At the rear of train leg pants, two steel pins allow the attachment of the sling used for takeoff.
The fabric of the glider is achieved by means of a very thin black veil (90 g / m2) waterproof collodion. This painting was obtained through tender reports qu'entretenait a student with the daughter of a spinner of Aachen. The color of the stabilizer and the appearance of saurian antediluvian FVA 1 were the origin of his Christian name: "Schwarze Teufel" = black devil.

With the support of von Karman, construction began in December 1919 in a disused vein wind tunnel aerodynamic laboratory. At that time, was located in Aachen area Belgian occupation and any airplane building was prohibited. The technical school was under the supervision of a Board of Control and the start of construction began clandestinely under the pretext of wind tunnel studies of aerodynamic models. Gradually, as the work progressed and became recognizable elements, the Board of Control was more suspicious and multiplied surprise inspections. Klemperer was increasingly hard to convince the Belgians it was only aerodynamic studies. The end of August 1920 was coming and it was urgent to route to the Black Devil Wasserkuppe where competition tests were conducted on July 15. Fortunately, bad weather that prevailed in Europe in the summer of 1920 had brought Ursinus to extend the trials until September 7.
When all aircraft are banned, the journey of the glider, from Aachen to the Rhön (250 km) through the Belgian occupation zones, English and French, was organized as a commando expedition. The first step was to carry the Devil Black school in a small truck freight yard trying to avoid roadside checks allies. As night falls, the truck left the city by small roads in principle little oversight, but after a few kilometers, the convoy encountered a column of trucks carrying troops. With great composure, students were integrated discreetly military convoy crossed without problems for several dams finally to the cover of darkness, to slip into the station where the glider was loaded on a tray and covered wagon with a tarpaulin. Péter Terkatz, who was assigned to accompany the glider to destination, naively took with her cigarette and cigar boxes cartridges to bribe those who might oppose the driving out of the operation. By learning from the conductor, Terkatz noticed that the load control would be done in Cologne by the English. These were based on the waybills of goods to be presented by the conductor to perform checks. As the conductor was incorruptible, Terkatz was forced to steal the slip on the Black Devil. Luckily, no one noticed the deception and the glider came to Gersfeld (in the unoccupied zone) without incident on Sept. 3 and was sent to the Wasserkuppe to be reassembled.
Cutting to Wasserkuppe

When the team consisting of Aachen Wolfgang Klemperer, Paul Stock, Theodor Bienen, Karl Fromm, Fritz Heffels Péter Terkatz and Kurt Weil arrives at the Wasserkuppe, the record is not very bright. First, the weather is terrible and the few flyable days since July 15; Ursinus extended the contest but no longer believes. The results are distressing: the best flight was directed by Willy Peizner who has managed a slip 452 m in 52 seconds.

The arrival of the team of Aachen and especially their machine completely original causes renewed interest. September 4, Klemperer and the Devil Black are on track and take off with a new device that delights the participants: the bungee. At the time, the throws were mainly in the race (as in hang gliding today) or, where the glider was too heavy with the help of assistants who were loading the glider on their shoulders and ran up the slope 'that the lift necessary for flight is acquired. Given the configuration and the weight of their machine, the team of Aachen had developed a catapult launch system by using elastic cable used to carry the dampers on aircraft landing gear. V Cable place before the glider came to take on two studs attached to the rear of train legs. Two assists firmly maintained the stern while at the end of each strand 4 men began to run to stretch the bungee cord; when the pilot considered sufficient tension, he shouted "los" (kinky!) for aid placed at the stern and the glider was leaving, catapulted into the slope. September 4, therefore, Klemperer directed two short flights of 315 and 362 m are the first Black Devil flights; it appears that the glider is centered slightly back and that management has insufficient efficacy, apart from this, the behavior and handling are excellent. The third flight is carried out on the western slope and lasts 2'22 ", the trajectory is very tense and stable, the glider which operates without doubt the slope effect arises at 1852 m from its starting point the. record of the Wasserkuppe is largely beaten.
The wing of the Schwarze Teufel under construction in the workshops of FVA
The nose wings and landing gear are fixed together and made the front of the device, the tail of the fuselage and tail are removable rear for transport
The Schwarze Teufel before leaving for the Wasserkuppe, Klemperer (with hat) and Terkatz behind the glider
MR. JEYES' AACHEN MONOPLANE: Inset, the machine in flight