Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland I and Roland II
Type
Ro VIII 2 + 10 seat airliner
Ro VIIIa  2 + 10 seat airliner
Ro VIII Roland II  2 + 10 seat airliner
Engine
3 BMW IV
3 BMW Va
Dimensions
Length 16.30 m, height 4.50 m, span 26.00 m, wingarea 88.00 m2, aspect
ratio 7,7
Length 16.30 m, height 4.50 m, span 26.30 m, wingarea 89.00 m2
Weights
Empty 3365 kg, fuel 745 kg, oil 50 kg,
crew 160 kg, load 1900 kg, paying
load 945 kg, flying weight 5265 kg,
wing loading 60,3 kg/m2, fuel 1120 l,
 
Empty 4400 kg,fuel 800 kg, oil 55 kg, crew 160 kg,  load 2215 kg, paying
load 1200 kg, flying weight 6615 kg
Performance
Max. speed 195 km/h at sea level,
205 km/h at 2000 m, cruising speed
175 km/h at sea level, climb at 1000
m 2.40 m/sec., landing speed 100
km/h, range 935 km, service ceiling
5500 m, endurance 5 h 
 
Max. speed 225 km/h at sea level, cruising speed 180 km/h at sea level,
climb at 1000 m 3.0 m/sec., landing speed 105 km/h, range 900 km, service
ceiling 4600 m, endurance 5 h
The Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland was an airliner produced in Germany during the 1920s.It was a conventional strut-braced, high-wing monoplane, based loosely on the Zeppelin-Staaken E.4/20 that Adolf Rohrbach designed in 1920. It had a fully enclosed flight deck and passenger cabin, and featured fixed, tailskid undercarriage. Power was supplied by three engines, one in the nose, and two mounted in nacelles on the wings.[2] Construction was of metal throughout.
In 1926 Deutsche Luft Hansa purchased the prototype Roland, followed by five production examples over that year and the next. The production machines were built with open flight decks, although they were later enclosed, as on the prototype.These were put to work servicing a route between Berlin and London via Hanover and Amsterdam.In July 1927 the Roland held the world endurance record for a payload of 1,000 kg with a flight of 14 hours 23 minutes,and the world distance record for a payload of 2,000 kg of 1,750 km (1,090 mi).] At different times, the Roland held twenty-two world records.
In 1928, Luft Hansa replaced three of its Rolands with new machines of slightly different design. Designated Ro VIIIa, these had a fuselage that was stretched by 30 cm (1 ft) and were powered by the more powerful BMW V engines in place of the BMW IVs fitted to the prototype and first production batch. A new Spanish airline, Iberia, purchased the three Rolands that Luft Hansa retired, and put them into service on its inaugural service between Madrid and Barcelona.
In 1929, Rohrbach produced nine examples of a substantially updated Roland for Luft Hansa. These featured a major redesign of the flight deck, and a new wing design. Dubbed the Roland II, these aircraft continued in service with the airline until 1936 on its Hamburg-Malmö and Berlin-Munich routes. Luft Hansa sold at least three of these aircraft to Deruluft upon retirement. The Luftwaffe acquired another one, armed it, and operated it at the clandestine school at Lipetsk to train bomber crews.
The Spanish amusement park Tibidabo (Barcelona) got a real-size replica of that plane, painted red. It is the most famous ride in the park, opened on September 23, 1928, sometimes referred to as "the first flight simulator in the world", and called "L'avió" (Catalan for "the plane").
During his 1932 election campaign, Adolf Hitler hired a Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland aeroplane from Deutsche Luft Hansa for his two first series of campaign flights in March and July. The aeroplane was named Immelmann I after World War I pilot Max Immelmann. Hitler switched to a Ju-52 in November 1932.
Rohrbach Ro-VIIIa Roland and its pilot Charpentier at Geneva-Cointrin airport (1929)
ROHRBACH ALL-METAL COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE RO VIII " ROLAND.
It is a semicantilever monoplane with dihedral and one cable from each half of the wing to the. bottom of the fuselage.
The wing is rectangular with tips rounded.    The fuselage has a rectangular section with well-rounded upper edges.   
This airplane can fly five hours with two pilots and ten passengers. The axle of each wheel is hinged to the lower fuselage
longeron and is held in position by a horizontal strut hinged to the same longeron farther forward.    It is also connected
with the wing by a vertical spring strut-   The vertical struts are provided with spiral springs which act as shock absorbers.
The wheels have wire spokes, steel rims and rubber tires 1250 x 250 mm (49.2 x 9.8 in.).
The passenger cabin has a length of 5 m (16 ft- 5 in.), in-side width of 1-55 m (5 ft. 1 in.) and inside height of 1.8 m (5 ft. 11 in.)  (standing height); seats for ten passengers; plywood floor; leather upholstering to the window sills and cloth above; seats in two rows with aisle between;  ten windows 600 x 530 mm (23.6 x 20.9 in.); cranks to open and shut the windows; racks for hand baggage and handles for holding on to; openings in the ceiling for ventilation; device for utilizing the heat from the exhaust gases to rarm the air;  electric lights; emergency exits through cloth-covered openings in the ceiling; toilet room behind the cabin.
The pilots* cockpit is in the front end of the fuselage and is accessible from above.    It contains two adjustable seats abreast, provided with arms and straps.    The dual control consists of steering wheels and rudder bars.    The visibility is good in all directions, even backward and above and below the wings.
The baggage room in the rear part of the fuselage is accessible from without through a door 1.4 x 1.1 m (4 ft. 7.1 in. x 3 ft. 7.3 in.) and also from the passenger cabin.    A spare engine can be carried in the front part of the passenger cabin. The power plant consists of three 230 HP. BMW IV engines. The middle engine is in the front end of the fuselage and the two lateral engines are supported by steel girders suspended from the wings.    All the engines are easily accessible. Starting is by merns of three very large compressed air cylinders placed below the pilots .compartment.    In order not to use the compressed air unnecessarily, the air cylinders available on the airdrome can be plugged into the starting lines on the airplane by means of a fuselage connection. The radiators of the side engines are located laterally under the wings; that of the middle engine, under the fuselage. Fuel delivery from the tanks to the wings is effected by pumps. The fuel is protected against fire by fire cocks.    The oil supply is 50 % over normal needs; an oil cooler is used. Engine control is accomplished through rods.    The short-circuiting of each magneto is possible separately or all together.   Wood propellers of the usual type or metal propeller, if preferred, can be employed.
The pilot and assistant pilot sit side by side behind the central engine.    The throttle and altitude controls ore arranged to be manipulated either together or separately.   Nivex gasoline gauges enable the pilot to tell the amount of fuel in each tank. No fuel piping is carried within the fuselage, all being external.   The various pipe lines for water, oil, gas and air are painted characteristic colors in accordance with modern German practice.    The lines which run out to the wing engines are set against the front lattice spars and ore immediately accessible by swinging up the hinged nose of the wings.    As the trailing edge can also be swung open, the inner wing structure con be readily examined.
The aileron control rods are placed just behind the front spars.    The rods controlling the elevators and rudders run inside the fuselage and have joints at intervals. The fittings which connect the wing spars to the body have in addition to the two usual attachments a third placed between then at an angle, a feature which Dr. Rohrbach has patented. Although there is a door between the cabin and the pilot's cockpit, the latter is customarily reached by a walkway on top of the fuselage from the tail. The cabin comfortably accommodates the ten passengers. The entrance door is to the rear on the right side and opposite to it is a lavatory. The stabilizer is adjustable only on the ground and the vertical fin is not adjustable. The Gottingen 449 airfoil section is used. .
Rohrbach system of construction, 'which means:
a) Material.* Duralumin in sheets and open sections affording easy inspection of all parts.    All rivet heads can be inspected from both sides.
b) Parts easily removed and replaced, thus facilitating inspection and repairs.
c) Metal covering on fuselage and wings, thus providing a supporting surface or walkway on wings.
d) Great strength with small weight.
e) Wings built in longitudinal sections:   middle hollow section and hinged leading- and trailing-edge sections for in- spection, of interior of wing.    All the sections provided v/ith fuel tanks, thereby rendering it possible to increase the
flight duration.
f)   All the tail planes built like the wings (hollow, with leading-edge sections.
Electric equipment.-
The source of power is a generator with windmill drive; and storage batteries (12 volt) with connections for illumination of cabin and instrument board, landing
lights and position lights.
Radio equipment.- We recommend one airplane radio sending set of about 70 watt antenna power for distances of
1)   Telephone               150-300 km  
3)   Sound signals        180-340  km   
3)   Undamped               500-600  km 
Antenna about 70 meters (239.66 feet) long, other lengths if desired.
Fire extinguishers-- are rigidly installed :vith distribution pipes to the carburetors, and shut-off device within reach of pilot.
Instruments   are in plain sight on instrument board and consist of :
3 revolution counters, 3 cooling-water thermometers,
3 oil thermometers, 3 oil manometers, 2 fuel gauges, 1 altimeter,
1 air-speed meter (with Pitot tube), 3 chronometers, 1 compass.
The special Instruments, used when desired, are:
1    gyroscopic inclinometer,

1   distance compass with galvanometer and course indicator,
1    special.altimeter for night flying, scale up to 500 n (1640 ft.),
1   searchlight,
1   cabin altimeter,
1   map pocket or.roller.
The tool pocket contains: 6 spanners, l hammer, 1 monkey wrench, 1 oil can for gasoline, 1 screw driver, 1 spark-plug wrench, 1 combination pliers, 1 oiler.